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Athletes who are exercising very strenuously may 200 mL 200 mL 21 need to drink beverages with some carbohydrates for en- Lungs ergy and also some electrolytes to keep fluids in balance discount viagra sublingual 100mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction injection medication. A few of the most important ions are reviewed next: ◗ Positive ions (cations): ◗ Sodium is chiefly responsible for maintaining osmotic balance and body fluid volume purchase 100 mg viagra sublingual with visa erectile dysfunction treatment bayer. Sodium is required for nerve 426 ✦ CHAPTER TWENTY ONE Box 21-1 A Closer Look Osmoreceptors: Thinking About ThirstOsmoreceptors: Thinking About Thirst smoreceptors are specialized neurons that help to main- pituitary. They are located in the ◗ They stimulate the thirst center of the hypothalamus, caus- hypothalamus of the brain in an area adjacent to the third ven- ing increased consumption of water. Almost as soon as tricle, where they monitor the osmotic pressure (concentra- water consumption begins, however, the sensation of thirst tion) of the circulating blood plasma. Receptors in the throat and stomach send in- Osmoreceptors respond primarily to small increases in hibitory signals to the thirst center, preventing overcon- sodium, the most common cation in ECF. Traveling to different regions Both of these mechanisms serve to dilute the blood and of the hypothalamus, these impulses may have two different other body fluids. Aldos- ◗ Potassium is also important in the transmission of terone, produced by the adrenal cortex, promotes the re- nerve impulses and is the major positive ion in intra- absorption of sodium (and water) and the elimination of cellular fluids. In Addison disease, in which the adrenal cor- zyme activities, and it helps regulate the chemical re- tex does not produce enough aldosterone, there is a loss actions by which carbohydrate is converted to energy of sodium and water and an excess of potassium. When the blood concentration of sodium rises above ◗ Calcium is required for bone formation, muscle con- the normal range, the pituitary secretes more antidiuretic traction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clot- hormone (ADH). Phosphates are mone increases blood calcium levels by causing the bones found in plasma membranes, nucleic acids (DNA and to release calcium and the kidneys to reabsorb calcium. Although some electrolytes are lost in Regulation of pH the feces and through the skin as sweat, the job of bal- ancing electrolytes is left mainly to the kidneys, as de- The body constantly produces acids in the course of me- scribed in Chapter 22 on the urinary system. Catabolism of fats yields fatty acids and other BODY FLUIDS ✦ 427 Box 21-2 Clinical Perspectives Sodium and Potassium: Causes and Consequences of ImbalanceSodium and Potassium: Causes and Consequences of Imbalance he concentrations of sodium and potassium in body fluids The term hyperkalemia is taken from the Latin name for Tare important measures of water and electrolyte balance. It refers to excess potassium in body flu- An excess of sodium in body fluids is termed hypernatremia, ids, which may result from kidney failure, dehydration, and taken from the Latin name for sodium, natrium. Hypona- pokalemia, or low potassium in body fluids, may result from tremia, a deficiency of sodium in body fluids, can come from taking diuretics, which cause potassium to be lost along with water intoxication, heart failure, kidney failure, cirrhosis of water. It can cause much aldosterone from the adrenal cortex, and it causes mus- muscle weakness, hypotension, confusion, shock, convul- cle fatigue, paralysis, confusion, hypoventilation, and cardiac sions, and coma. This condition depresses and, under anaerobic conditions, lactic acid; carbon diox- the nervous system, leading to mental confusion and ul- ide dissolves in the blood and yields carbonic acid (see timately coma. It may also arise from kidney failure or prolonged gether to counteract these changes and maintain acid- diarrhea, which drains the alkaline contents of the intes- base balance: tine. Buffers are substances that prevent Acidosis may also result from inadequate carbohy- sharp changes in hydrogen ion (H ) concentration and drate metabolism, as occurs in diabetes mellitus, inges- thus maintain a relatively constant pH. The main buffer systems in the body are bi- from food or body materials, leading to the production of carbonate buffers, phosphate buffers, and proteins, excess acid. When acidosis results from the accumulation such as hemoglobin in red blood cells and plasma pro- of ketone bodies, as in the case of diabetes, the condition teins. This abnormality excites the release from the lungs makes the blood more alkaline nervous system to produce tingling sensations, muscle by reducing the amount of carbonic acid formed. Table 21•1 Causes of Acidosis and Alkalosis Checkpoint 21-7 What are three mecha- ACIDOSIS ALKALOSIS nisms for maintaining the acid—base bal- ance of body fluids? Metabolic Kidney failure; anaerobic me- Overuse of antacids; prolonged tabolism; lack of carbohy- vomiting drate metabolism, as in dia- Abnormal pH betes, starvation; prolonged diarrhea If shifts in pH cannot be controlled, ei- Respiratory Respiratory obstruction, lung Hyperventilation (overbreathing ther acidosis or alkalosis results (Table disease such as asthma due to anxiety or oxygen 21-1). Metabolic acidosis or alkalosis results ◗ Increased loss of fluid through the capillaries, as caused from unregulated increases or decreases in any other acids by injury, allergic reaction, or certain infections. Tubercu- ◗ Interference with normal fluid return to the heart, as losis, cancer, and some infections may give rise to effu- caused by congestive heart failure or blockage in the ve- sion. It may occur in disor- ure of the liver to manufacture adequate amounts of the ders of the liver, kidneys, and heart, as well as in cancers, protein albumin, as frequently occurs in liver disease. In sulting from the inability of the kidneys to eliminate such cases, it may be necessary to administer intravenous adequate amounts of urine fluids to correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances. Eprofessionals to arrive at the scene of an automobile accident, At medical facilities, EMTs work closely with physicians and heart attack, or other emergency situation. EMTs must assess and nurses, reporting on histories, physical examinations, and respond rapidly to a medical crisis, taking a medical history, per- measures taken to stabilize the patient. Most EMTs receive forming a physical examination, stabilizing the patient, and, if their training from a college or technical school and must be necessary, transporting the patient to the nearest medical facility. To perform their life-saving duties, EMTs need extensive As the American population continues to age and become training, including a thorough understanding of anatomy and concentrated in urban centers, the rate of accidents and other physiology.
However discount viagra sublingual 100 mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction prevention, a detailed χ2 analysis of the results (not shown) revealed no signif- icant differences between M1 and SMA for laterality preferences purchase 100mg viagra sublingual visa erectile dysfunction treatment miami. It was inactive when the monkey made unimanual movements toward either 45° or 225° (middle and rightmost columns). However, the same neuron was strongly activated when the two arms moved in parallel toward 225° (row b). It was also active, but less so, in another type of bimanual trial where the two arms moved in opposite directions (row c), but did not respond at all during the other bimanual movements (rows a and d). Here, the neuron exhibited the opposite effect: the strong responses during unimanual movements of the contralat- eral arm to 45° disappeared when the same arm moved in a bimanual context with the ipsilateral arm (left column, rows a and c). Copyright © 2005 CRC Press LLC A Left Arm Right Arm 45 45 50 0 225 225 -700 1000 Time (ms) B 45 45 18 0 225 225 -700 1000 Time (ms) FIGURE 4. Each horizontal line of dots represents a trial; each action potential is represented by a dot. Trials are aligned on the beginning of movement and sorted by reaction time; the line below each plot indicates the range of target appearance times. The peri-event time histograms (PETHs) (ﬁlled black histograms above raster display) have a bin width of 2. Many neurons showed bimanual-related activity that was less dramatic than the two examples above. To quantitatively compare evoked activity during bimanual movements to evoked activity during unimanual movements, it is necessary to correctly compare the evoked activity during performance of a given bimanual movement to the unimanually evoked activities. In the task used here, there were four different bimanual movements performed by the monkey — two bimanual parallel movements and two bimanual opposite movements (the four left-hand plots of Figure 4. Copyright © 2005 CRC Press LLC Bimanual Contralateral Ipsilateral → → → → a ← ← ← ← b → ← → ← c ← → ← → 18 sp/s d -750 750 Time (ms) FIGURE 4. Each row contains PETHs and raster displays depicting the cell activity in one type of trial. The cell only had strong activation during bimanual movements (b, left column) and no activity in unimanual trials (right column is unimanual right; middle column is unimanual left). The direction of movement of each arm is indicated by arrows or a dot if the arm does not move. Trials are aligned on the beginning of the movement (of the ﬁrst arm) and sorted by reaction time. Copyright © 2005 CRC Press LLC Left Right Bimanual Contralateral Ipsilateral 45 & 45 45 45 A 225 & 225 225 225 B 45 & 225 45 225 C 225 & 45 225 45 13 0 D -700 1000 Time (ms) FIGURE 4. The activity evoked during unimanual contralateral move- ments disappears and is even suppressed (row C) during bimanual movements. The question is which of the two unimanual movements forms the appropriate comparison. One possibility is always to compare activity during bimanual move- ments to activity during a unimanual contralateral movement. However, this choice disregards neurons with an ipsilateral preference in unimanual movements. If the focus is whether there is a difference between maximal activation in bimanual movements and maximal activation in unimanual movements, it is appropriate to compare neural activity during bimanual movements to the neural activity in the Copyright © 2005 CRC Press LLC unimanual component that evoked the strongest response. To test the statistical signif- icance of this effect, we performed four Mann-Whitney tests. Note that the bimanual- related effect is not inﬂuenced by the baseline ﬁring rate; it represents a direct comparison of the ﬁring rates in the activation epochs of unimanual and bimanual movements. The percentage of cells that exhibited signiﬁcant bimanual-related effects was high in both M1 and SMA: 55% (129/232) in M1, and 52% (107/206) in SMA. The effect could be negative, meaning that evoked activity is stronger in unimanual than in bimanual movements (as in Figure 4. The distribution of strengths of the effect was also similar in M1 and in SMA (veriﬁed by a Kolmogorov- Smirnov statistic that showed no signiﬁcant difference between the distributions of bimanual-related effects in the two areas, p > 0. To conduct this comparison, we tested whether the normalized evoked activity (NEA) (the change from the baseline ﬁring) during bimanual movements could be explained by a simple linear summation of the unimanual movements that compose it, which requires that the linear summation hold true for all four bimanual movements.
Type II OPD syndrome is differentially diagnosed with the malformation of the bones of the ribcage viagra sublingual 100 mg fast delivery erectile dysfunction caused by stroke. If from type I OPD by the presence of an omphalocele and these individuals survive infancy order viagra sublingual 100mg overnight delivery erectile dysfunction pills at gnc, they also may expect to greater malformations of the bones of the ribcage. Treatment and management There are currently no treatments aimed specifically Resources at OPD syndrome. PO Box 11082, surgery or can be alleviated through the use of braces Chattanooga, TN 37401. GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS 865 National Foundation for Facial Reconstruction. The vast majority of people with ovarian “Entry 311300: Otopalatodigital syndrome. In these cases, a specific genetic Congenital Anomaly/Mental Retardation (MCA/MR) Syndromes Database. If these genes have changes within them, the instructions “Oto Palato Digital Syndrome Type I and II. Therefore, all ovarian cancers are genetic because they all result from changes within genes. Johnson is that most ovarian cancers are caused by sporadic changes within the genes, and only a minority are caused by inherited genetic alterations. A small proportion of ovarian cancer is caused by Ovarian cancer is a disease in which the cells in the inherited genetic alterations. As of 2001, a genetic alter- ovaries become abnormal and start to grow uncontrol- ation causing a predisposition solely to ovarian cancer lably, forming tumors. However, in 1994 a breast and cers develop in the cells that line the surface of the ovarian cancer susceptibility gene, known as BRCA1 ovaries and are called “epithelial cell tumors. Description Women with alterations in these genes have an increased The ovaries are a pair of almond-shaped organs that risk for breast and ovarian cancer, and men have an lie in the pelvis on either side of the uterus. In addition, they also produce the (in men and women) are also associated with BRCA2 female hormones estrogen and progesterone, which reg- alterations. Nearly all individuals with BRCA alterations difficult to discover in the early stages. This is often have a family history of the alteration, usually a parent because there are no obvious warning signs, and the dis- with it. In turn, they also may have a very strong family ease can grow relatively quickly. In addition, the ovaries history of breast, ovarian, prostate, colon, and/or pancre- are situated deep in the abdomen and small tumors may atic cancers. Aside from BRCA1 and BRCA2, there 866 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS likely are other cancer susceptibility genes that are still unknown. KEY TERMS In addition to BRCA1 and BRCA2, ovarian cancer may be present in rare genetic cancer syndromes. In these Alteration—Change or mutation in a gene, specif- instances, an individual may have other health problems ically in the DNA that codes for the gene. As an example, Hereditary examination of living tissue for diagnostic pur- Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) is a syn- poses. HNPCC is due to changes in sev- procedure that produces a three-dimensional pic- eral genes including hMLH1, hMSH2, hMSH6, and ture of organs or structures inside the body, such as hPMS2. Laparoscopy—A diagnostic procedure in which a Demographics small incision is made in the abdomen and a slen- der, hollow, lighted instrument is passed through On average, a North American woman faces a life- it. The doctor can view the ovaries more closely time risk of approximately 2% to develop ovarian cancer. The American Cancer Society states Laparotomy—An operation in which the abdomi- that in the year 2000 about 23,100 new cases of ovarian nal cavity is opened up. Specific BRCA alter- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)—A technique ations are common in certain ethnic groups, which may that employs magnetic fields and radio waves to make hereditary ovarian cancer more common in these create detailed images of internal body structures populations. Ovarian cancer has no specific signs or symptoms in Transvaginal ultrasound—A way to view the the early stages of the disease. A probe is inserted rience some of the following: into the vagina and the ovaries can be seen.
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