By C. Mamuk. Hebrew College. 2018.
Potential physicians need to know first hand what patients experience in the halls while waiting for procedures order 100 mg kamagra soft visa erectile dysfunction at the age of 28, in the emergency department while waiting for help order kamagra soft 100 mg with visa impotence tumblr, and in their rooms after ringing the buzzer in distress. They need to see close up from the patients’ and families’ eye view what a hospitalization or outpatient experience means. This process of staying close to the patient should continue in the pre-clinical years. There should be chances for medical and nursing students to listen to the unstructured narratives of patients: to the stories of their illnesses and their efforts to cope; to their accounts of encounters with doctors and medical institutions; to their stories of seeking care and trying to find ways to pay for it. We need, in fact, a whole course in the preclinical years which is supplemental to the courses given on medical histories and physical diagnosis – a course on patient experiences. FULL SPECTRUM MEANS AND ENDS REASONING 163 Medical students by and large arrive at school with the idea that they should become skillful in order to serve patients. Unfortunately, the four years of medical school often communicate another idea: That students are learning to serve an ideal called "health" (assumed to be precise without having ever been precisely articulated), and that their job will be to foist this ideal on patients. We should not inculcate an ideal which has an abstract existence outside of actual patients. Such an agenda leads to the view that patients are obstacles to the external ideal, and not the very parties who ultimately determine what ideal goals should be in play. The perception that patients are difficult, stubborn, and foolish increases when ideals are anchored outside of those patients. This perception, whatever real justification it might sometimes have, becomes exaggerated and gets in the way of accomplishing anything. It would be well to replace the concept of ideal health with the concept of the possible, relative to particular patients. To facilitate wise decision making, the medical curriculum needs to focus on functioning with uncertainty, not arriving at premature certainty as though it was required for functioning. Professors should reveal the well-kept secret that not everything can be diagnosed to fit our existing categories of illness. They should admit that "illness" is not a univocal concept, but a vague one with borderline cases. They should acknowledge that triage is not something that happens only after a train wreck or a bomb explosion, but that it happens all day long every day, because not all concerns can be met at once – they have to be prioritized. Instead of teaching students that they have to do everything, and that anything less than absolute adherence to the ideal is total failure, the educational system needs to get real and teach how to prioritize – how to do the most necessary, the most practical, and the most important items for and with the patient first. Clinical teaching needs to emphasize that there are many ways to the promised land. The gold standard of care in Massachusetts is, surprise, looked down upon in Texas and California. The "mandatory" prophylactic colonoscopy enjoined by the American College of Surgeons is, wonder of wonders, an air contrast barium enema when ordered by the radiologists. Schools need to teach that recommendations which are at odds with one another can in some circumstances, far from being a scandal, be beneficial to medicine as a whole. Teachers need to be more tentative and less dogmatic, more skeptical and less religious about their current recommended practices. For one thing, as noted previously, they often have many diagnoses, uniquely mixed. For another, the importance of their diagnoses is for their lives, not the other way around. Patients do not and never will do everything their doctors tell them This lack of compliance is not, as medical education traditionally has let young doctors think, pure irrationality. If physicians were to ask why patients fail to come in for follow up, for example, or fail to get their prescriptions filled, or fail to take medications or comply with dietary and lifestyle advice, the patients would offer many sound reasons. Instead, we are taught an "all or nothing" approach to good 164 CHAPTER 6 care which too often results in patients going AWOL. Medical schools need to teach students how real patients act and how to deal with those realities, not send them out furnished only with rigid agendas which fail to interface with actual lives. Finally, let us take a critical look at hierarchies in medicine and the ordeal theory of medical education. Medical training is difficult enough without unnecessary shaming and humiliation for the trainees, and without subjecting them to impossible hours and patient loads, especially, at times, without adequate supervision and help from attending physicians. With the entry of women into medicine and a little help from the nascent efforts of medical residents to bargain on their contracts, some earlier abuses have been mitigated. And of course, there are vast differences between the various programs, with some being collegial and others completely authoritarian.
A medial swivel dislocation is one in which the talonavic- ular joint is dislocated discount kamagra soft 100 mg on-line erectile dysfunction treatment injection cost, the subtalar joint is subluxed kamagra soft 100mg with mastercard impotence treatment natural, and the calcaneocuboid joint is intact. Longitudinal Stress Injury Force is transmitted through the metatarsal heads proxi- mally along the rays, with resultant compression of the midfoot between the metatarsals and the talus with the foot plantar ﬂexed. Longitudinal forces pass between the cuneiforms and frac- ture the navicular, typically in a vertical pattern. Lateral Stress Injury This s-called "nutcracker fracture" is a characteristic frac- ture of the cuboid as the forefoot is driven laterally, causing crushing of the cuboid between the calcaneus and the bases of the fourth and ﬁfth metatarsals. This is most commonly an avulsion fracture of the navi- cular with a comminuted compression fracture of the cuboid. In more severe trauma, the talonavicular joint subluxes lat- erally and the lateral column of the foot collapses due to comminution of the calcaneocuboid joint. Plantar Stress Injury Plantarly directed forces may result in sprains to the mid- tarsal region with avulsion fractures of the dorsal lip of the navicular, talus, or anterior process of the calcaneus. Crush injuries Navicular Fractures Eichenholtz And Levin Classiﬁcation Type I: Avulsion fractures of tuberosity Type II: A fracture involving the dorsal lip Type III: A fracture through the body Sangeorzan Classiﬁcation (Figure 3. Sangeorzan BJ, Benirschke SK, Mosca V, Mayo KA, and Hansen ST Jr: Displaced intra-articular fractures of the tarsal navicular. Continued 74 FRACTURE CLASSIFICATIONS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE Type III: Comminuted fracture pattern with naviculo-cuneiform joint disruption; associated fractures may exist (cuboid, anterior calcaneus, calcaneocuboid joints). Cuboid Fractures OTA Classiﬁcation Of Cuboid Fractures Higher letters and numbers denote more signiﬁcant injury. Type A: Extraarticular Type A1: Extraarticular, avulsion Type A2: Extraarticular, coronal Type A3: Extraarticular, multifragmentary Type B: Partial articular, single joint (calcaneocuboid or cubotarsal) Type B1: Partial articular, sagittal Type B2: Partial articular, horizontal Type C: Articular, calcaneocuboid and cubotarsal involvement Type C1: Articular, multifragmentary Type C1. PELVIS AND LOWER LIMB 75 Tarsometatarsal (Lisfranc) Joint Quenu and Kuss Classiﬁcation (Figure 3. Fracture-dislocations of the tarsometatarsal joints: end results correlated with pathology and treatment. Copyright © 1986 by the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS), originally published in Foot and Ankle Interna- tional, April 1986, Volume 6, Number 5, page 228 and reproduced here with permission. Divergent Partial Total Fractures of the Base of the Fifth Metatarsal Dameron Classiﬁcation (Figures 3. Reprinted from The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Volume 3 (2), pp. Type II: Transphyseal fracture that exits the metaphysis; the metaphyseal fragment is known as the Thurston- Holland fragment; the periosteal hinge is intact on the side with the metaphyseal fragment; prognosis is excel- lent, although complete or partial growth arrest may occur in displaced fractures. Type III: Transphyseal fracture that exits the epiphysis, causing intraarticular disruption; anatomic reduction and ﬁxation without violating the physis are essential; pro- gnosis is guarded because partial growth arrest and resultant angular deformity are common problems. Type IV: Fracture that traverses the epiphysis and the physis, exiting the metaphysis; anatomic reduction and ﬁxation without violating the physis are essential; pro- gnosis is guarded, because partial growth arrest and resultant angular deformity are common. Type V: Crush injury to the physis; diagnosis is generally made retrospectively; prognosis is poor because growth arrest and partial physeal closure commonly result. It can cause scaring, tethering and arrest of the periphery of the epiphyseal plate, producing angular deformity. SUPRACONDYLAR HUMERUS FRACTURES Classiﬁcation of Extension Type Gartland Classiﬁcation Based on degree of displacement: Type I: Nondisplaced Type II: Displaced with intact posterior cortex; may be slightly angulated or rotated Type III: Complete displacement; Posteromedial or postero- lateral Wilkins Modiﬁcation of Gartland’s Classiﬁcation Type 1: Undisplaced 4. FRACTURES IN CHILDREN 81 Type 2 Type 2A: Intact posterior cortex and angulation only Type 2B: Intact posterior cortex, angulation and rotation Type 3 Type 3A: Completely displaced, no cortical contact, posteromedial Type 3B: Completely displaced, no cortical contact, posterolateral LATERAL CONDYLAR PHYSEAL FRACTURES Milch Classiﬁcation (Figure 4. Type II: Fracture line extends into the apex of the trochlea, rep- resenting a Salter-Harris type II fracture. Group B: Lateral condyle ossiﬁed (7 months to 3 years); Salter- Harris type I or II (ﬂeck of metaphysis). Group C: Large metaphyseal fragment, usually exiting laterally (ages 3 to 7 years). T-CONDYLAR FRACTURES Wilkins and Beaty Classiﬁcation Type I: Nondisplaced or minimally displaced Type II: Displaced, with no metaphyseal comminution Type III: Displaced, with metaphyseal comminution 4.
If throughout entire drawing: possible organicity generic 100mg kamagra soft fast delivery erectile dysfunction beta blockers, inner tension purchase 100mg kamagra soft visa erectile dysfunction medications comparison, possible aggression b. Reinforcement of items: indicative of anxiety regarding the in- dividual’s functioning in the environment IV. Unhealthy: unwarranted use of time, excessive force; over- meticulous; inferior control and reinforcement V. Few colors, if any: constricted, emotionally shy, reserved, emo- tionally unstable C. Expansive use: inability to exercise self-control and restraint over emotional impulses 298 Structural Aspects: Quantitative Analysis D. Clash intensity: use of inharmonious color combinations; profound disturbance; immature, regressive, possibly psy- chotic 4. Pressure intensity: improperly modulated, involuntarily heavy pressure; organicity, central nervous system pathology VI. Drawing opposite sex ﬁrst: strong attachment to or dependency on parent or person of the opposite sex; possible sexual identiﬁcation conﬂict A. By a female: aggressive, striving, desirous to compete with males; rejection of feminine role C. Drawn by a male or female: strong attachment to or depend- ence on parent or other individual of opposite sex VII. Ground lines and backgrounds: vulnerable to stress; adding these elements reduces the anxiety about one’s functioning by structur- ing the self within the environment; need for support (back- grounds) or a "stage" to exhibit self A. Differentiated (detailed, delineated): conﬂict under control and contained by intellectual defenses B. Ambiguous (single lines, sky, drops of rain): anxiety regarding environmental intrusions, poor intellectual defenses C. Vague (scribbling or shading for the ground): free-ﬂoating anx- iety, poor coping VIII. Excessive, unnecessary detailing/over-symmetrical: possible defense mechanism of compulsion, intellectualization; obsessive- compulsive 299 Appendix A XI. Redrawing an entire rendering: threatened by the content and needs to draw a "safer" image XII. Transparencies: distortions of reality; tenuous reality testing, low IQ; normal in young children A. Older children and adults: possible psychosis, thought pattern disturbances, uncontained anxiety 300 APPENDIX B Formal Aspects Qualitative Analysis of the Person Essential details: Head Trunk Two legs (unless accounted for [e. Partial ﬁgure: basic discomfort with body image, sense of inadequacy, defense mechanisms of blocking or evasion A. Seated or prone: dependency; passive self-concept and mode of interaction; inhibited energy, lack of drive II. Large: preoccupation with fantasy life, focus on mental life; wish they were smarter or better able to achieve; organicity B. Back to viewer: paranoid or schizoid tendencies; rejection; evasion; avoidance to show or express feelings, impulses, or fantasies; fears a loss of control D. Enlarged on the opposite sex: opposite sex viewed as smarter or possessing greater authority E. Effeminate features (large eyes and lashes) on male ﬁgure by male: homosexual tendency G. In proﬁle view: fear of commitment; expression of impulses is controlled; avoidance of the environment H. Proﬁle head with full view of body (usually seen with adolescent boys): social uneasiness, guilt, dishonesty I. Drawing the head last: disturbance in interpersonal relationships, possible thought disorder J. Hair (anywhere on the body): expression of virility/striving, masculinity, and strength A. Eyes: Normal eye detailing includes two to three of the fol- lowing items: eyeball, iris or pupil, lashes, eyebrow.
Having evalu- ated his first doctor cheap kamagra soft 100mg amex otc erectile dysfunction drugs walgreens, he had changed doctors and treatment and was certainly enjoying the results discount 100mg kamagra soft overnight delivery erectile dysfunction louisville ky. That story is much happier than the one I heard on the tele- phone recently, when a woman called to discuss her husband’s life doctors and other health professionals 69 with Parkinson’s. The man sits and sits, often staring into space, unwilling to do anything or go out. At his brief medical appoint- ments, his neurologist tells him he is doing fine and that he should come back in three months. I don’t know whether the neurologist is neglecting discussion, advice, and the adjustment of medication to this patient’s needs, or whether the patient and his spouse are failing to speak up about the patient’s symptoms, prob- lems, and needs. I do know that nothing is happening, except that the patient goes home to his chair, the spouse goes back to the same hopeless feelings, and the neurologist goes to the bank with another fee. In this case, as in so many others like it, one can only advise that another doctor be consulted, preferably a specialist in Parkinson’s, and that the patient and the spouse take a more active role in communicating their situation and their needs. I don’t want to imply that everyone who has Parkinson’s needs to have a Parkinson’s specialist to get adequate treatment. How- ever, I do believe that every person with Parkinson’s deserves a doctor who has a special interest in (or excellent experience with) this disease, whether he or she is a specialist, a neurologist, or a general practitioner. Common sense tells me that no matter how competent a family doctor may be, no one doctor has the time to keep up with all the new treatments for the broad range of ill- nesses that he or she may diagnose. But even neurologists specialize; a neurologist who specializes in Parkinson’s disease does not have to divide his or her time among such a large variety of disorders. The neurologist attends conferences and symposia and participates in testing and research that relate to Parkinson’s. He or she is aware of all the latest developments and can help patients take advantage of them. Once you have found the right doctor, you must take the ini- tiative and talk to him or her. One thing you must talk to your doctor about is the cost of medications, therapies, and fees, as well as the extent to which you are covered (or not covered) in 70 living well with parkinson’s each of these areas by insurance and Social Security. While today’s medications and therapies buy you a life span of twenty years or more (up to a normal life span) rather than the three to ten years of former times, they cost a great deal. It is not unusual for a patient’s medications to cost more than a thousand dollars per month. If you feel that you cannot afford the cost of some med- ications, you must talk to your doctor about the best alternatives. He or she may advise a different course of treatment or may advise you to shop around for a pharmacy or another source that offers the lowest costs. Talk to your APDA Information and Referral Center or to the United Parkinson Foundation about where to find the best buys. And, after following the pre- scribed treatment, you are responsible for reporting the results back to him or her. Your input is very important in helping the doctor determine whether your symptoms are being controlled, whether you are being undermedicated or overmedicated, whether you are struggling with depression (which can be treated! Don’t be afraid to bring a list of the points you want to discuss with your doctor, and take the time to cover them all. Write down his or her answers (or ask your spouse or caregiver to write them down)—or bring a tape recorder—if you think you might not be able to remember them. Cunningham offers some good suggestions in her article "How to Talk to Your Doctor" (Woman’s Day, August 4, 1987). Some doctors ask the spouse to wait outside while the patient is in the consultation office. Cunningham suggests that a good response would be, "I’m really not up to par today, and I would like my spouse to stay. I think he can help me to understand and remember what you say better than if I were alone. Cunningham suggests that the way to avoid being cut off is to tell the doctor at the beginning of your visit that you have three (or some other definite number of ) symptoms to discuss with him or her. Then, if the doctor tries to cut your visit short, remind him or her that you still have other symptoms to discuss. If the diagnosis or the explanation is in medical jargon that you don’t understand, ask the doctor to explain it again in plain Eng- lish.
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